In fact the foremost cause of the change in worldview was the
industrial revolution. Science was primarily a branch of theology, and it
reinforced religious thought. As a matter of fact, Aristotle science as
interpreted by Christian theologians fit nearly with Christian doctrine.

Concerning the Copernican hypothesis that stated that sun rather than the
earth as Aristotle though was at the center of the universe. It really had
huge consequences especially in the religious area since earth became just
a planet among many others. This theory brought sharp attacks from
religious leaders. This hypothesis was later proved by Kepler who came up
with a sun centered (solar) system and other famous laws. Galileo also came
up with a law called a law of inertia. Newton came up with the law of
universal gravitation. The causes of this scientific revolution were first
the long-term contribution ofmedieval.Intellectualandmedieval
universities by training lawyers, doctors… Second the renaissance also
stimulated scientific progress since powerful, wealthy business people were
supporting it. Third, the navigational problems of long sea voyages
stimulated that revolution. Finally, Protestantism was also stimulating
that revolution. Thus the scientific revolution of the seventh century was
first and foremost an intellectual revolution. For more than a hundred
years its greatest impact was on how people thought and believed.

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The enlightenment:
The scientific revolution was the single most important factor in the
creation of the new worldview of the eighteenth century enlightenment.

Enlightenment thinkers believed it was at least possible for human beings
to create better societies and better people. In fact, the outbreak of the
American Revolution in 1775, a large portion of Western Europe educated
elite had embraced many of the new ideas through the influence of
philosophers, who like fontenel and other workers were bringing science
into conflict with religion. Science mixed the globalization of science and
reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Unlike
Montesquieu Voltaire pessimist Ely concluded that the best one would hope
for the way of government was a good monarch since human beings are very
rarely worthy to govern themselves. Like other enlightenment thinkers,
Rousseau waspassionatelycommittedtoindividualfreedom.This
contribution to political theory was the social contact (1762) in which the
general wall and popular sovereignty. In addition to this, the writing and
pres complains of the philosophers are parts of a profound cultural
transformation: the European
Market for books grew dramatically in the 18th century. Another new concept
was salon of the th in which educated members of the intellectual,
economic and social. Where people can discuss and debate issues and form
their own ideas and their public opinion.

The enlightenment and Absolutism:
The French philosophers and linked spirits in most European countries
were primarily interested in converting people to critical scientific
thinkers and were not particularly concerned with politics. On the other
hand, such thinking naturally led to political criticism.

And interest in political reform as both possible and desirable. In fact,
it was necessary only for educate and enlighten who could then make good
laws and promote human happiness. Among those leaders we have first
Frederick the great of Prussia (1740-1786), who tolerantly allowed his
subject to believe as they wished in religious and philosophical matters.

Secondly, we have Catherine the great Russia (1762-1796) first she worked
hard to brig the sophisticated culture of western Europe to Russia, then it
insisted on domestic reform through better laws, finally she focused on
territorial expansion with a lot of success. Thirdly, the leaders of
Austria, the Austrian Hapsburgs, the first one was Maria Theresa who was
determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more
efficient. The second one was Joseph who abolished seldom in 1718 without
success because both nobility and peasants violently rejected it. Finally,
concerning absolutism in France in 1715 the duke restored the parlement and
its right to evaluate royal degree publicly thereafter, the parlement of
Paris protested and challenged the basis of royal authority claiming that
the king’s power has to be limited. The judicial opposition asserted that
the king could not apply heavy taxes without the consent of the parliament.