Introduction to
Washington, D.C.

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Washington, D.C., city and district, capital of the United
States of America. The city of Washington has the same boundaries as the
District of Columbia (D.C.), a federal territory established in 1790 as the
site of the new nation’s permanent capital. Named after the first U.S.

president, George Washington, the city has served since 1800 as the seat of
federal government. It is also the heart of a dynamic metropolitan region.

During the 20th century, the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area grew rapidly
as the responsibilities of national government increased, both at home and
throughout the world.

The city is located at the confluence of the Potomac and
Anacostia rivers and is flanked on the north, east, and southeast by Maryland
and on the southwest by Virginia. Although the city has retained some aspects
of its Southern origin, it has assumed a much more cosmopolitan character. At
the same time, the city struggles with social and economic disparity, and a
number of its residential neighborhoods suffer from poverty and crime.

Washington’s climate is hot and humid in the summer and cold and damp in the
winter. The average daily temperature range is -3 to 8C (27 to 46F) in
January and 22 to 31C (72 to 88F) in July. The city averages 98 cm (39 in)
of precipitation per year.

The Outline of
the City
Designated to serve as the permanent seat of the federal
government beginning in 1800, the District of Columbia was named for
Christopher Columbus. It was created from land ceded by the states of Virginia
and Maryland, and it incorporated the existing seaport towns of Alexandria,
Virginia, and Georgetown, Maryland. The district was originally 259 sq km (100
sq mi), or 10 miles square, as established under the Residence Act of 1790. The
central town site was laid out by French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant in
1791. The remaining land was an open area stretching north to the border with
Maryland. It was designated as Washington County. In 1846 Congress returned
that portion of the federal district that had originally been ceded by

In 1871 the cities of Washington and Georgetown were
consolidated with Washington County to become Washington, D.C., making the
city, the county, and the federal district one and the same. Washington, D.C.,
has a total area of 176 sq km (68 sq mi), and the Washington metropolitan
regionwhich in addition to Washington, D.C., contains 24 counties in the
surrounding states of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginiahas a total area of
17,920 sq km (6,920 sq mi).

Patterns of Settlement and Development
Initially Washington was slow to develop the dense pattern
of settlement characteristic of cities. By the 20th century, however,
Washington had filled its open spaces and dominated the surrounding area, which
remained largely rural. This pattern changed after World War II (1939-1945), as
the city lost population to the suburbs of Virginia and Maryland. While the
federal presence remained concentrated in Washington, it also expanded
considerably to the suburbs. At the same time, new private businessthe
fastest-growing source of regional employmentconcentrated almost exclusively
in the areas outside the city.

While the metropolitan area expanded outward, it did not do
so randomly. Growth tended to follow the location of federal facilities outside
the city and the development of major transportation routes. During World War
II, the construction of the Pentagon spurred development nearby on the Virginia
side of the Potomac River. Growth was also stimulated by other key facilities,
notably the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia; and the
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the National Bureau of Standards (now the
National Institute of Science and Technology), and the National Institutes of
Health (NIH) , all in Maryland.

Washington, D.C., grew slowly from the time of its origins
until the Civil War. Its founders expected it to emerge as a great city because
of its favored trading site along the Potomac River. However, the city proved
incapable of fully exploiting its opportunitiesdue to, among other things, a
lack of federal funding for developmentand it lagged behind other major port
cities along the eastern seaboard. Washington’s population boomed during the
Civil War, rising from a modest population of 61,122 in 1860 to 109,199 only a
decade later. During the first half of the 20th century, the federal presence
in the city expanded, and population grew with it, reaching a peak of more than
800,000 in 1950.

Until recently the great majority of the black population
was located inside the city. But like an earlier generation of whites, the
black middle class began to leave the city and move to the suburbs. In 1990,
when the city’s population was 606,900, blacks constituted about 66 percent,
compared with about 30 percent white. Hispanics, who may be of any race,
constituted about 5 percent of the population. The city had about 400,000 black
residents; however, just the two surrounding counties of Prince George’s,
Maryland, and Fairfax, Virginia, contained a combined population of about
430,000 black residents.

A small Chinese community formed in Washington in the late
19th century. Originally concentrated downtown along Pennsylvania Avenue,
Chinatown moved several blocks north to make way for completion of the Federal
Triangle office complex in the 1930s. Chinatown still exists along H Street NW,
but only about a third of Washington’s 3,000 Chinese listed in the 1990 census
live in that area. An additional 37,000 Chinese live in surrounding suburbs. In
the suburbs, they are joined by more recent immigrant groups from Asia, most
notably Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Lao. Both suburban Maryland and northern
Virginia support Asian populations of about 100,000 each.

Hispanics form the other major immigrant group in the area.

Although the District of Columbia’s population is about 5 percent Hispanic, the
largest number of these immigrants are located in the suburbs: an estimated
90,000 in Maryland and 100,000 in Virginia. In 1991 the Washington metropolitan
area ranked tenth in the nation as a destination for new immigrants.

Major Economic
From the time of its origin, Washington was expected to
emerge as a great trading city because of its site along the Potomac River.

However, the city lagged behind other major port cities, such as Baltimore,
along the eastern seaboard. Instead of trade, the driving force of the city’s
economy has proved to be the federal government.
At first employing no more than several hundred workers,
the federal bureaucracy grew steadily in the 19th century and exploded in the
20th century. By 1940, 44 percent of civilian workers in the city of Washington
were federal employees. Although the private economy grew faster than the
public sector after World War II, it still remained closely tied to the federal
presence through the proliferation of national associations, lobbyists,
subcontractors, lawyers, and accountants associated with government work.

America’s increasingly global role created scores of jobs in such organizations
as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Organization of
American States, in addition to the U.S. government’s own departments of state
and defense. These federal jobs stimulated the economy and boosted the value of
real estate in Washington, especially in the 1980s, and the federal government
continued as a major presence in the city throughout the 1990s.

Tourism is the second most important aspect of the city’s
economy. The national monuments and museums attract more than 18 million
visitors each year; hotels are numerous. The city hosts many conventions, and a
major convention center opened in 1983. The functions of federal and local
government and the tourism industry have created a large service economy, which
employs more than one-third of all the city’s workers. Manufacturing is of only
minor importance and is dominated by the printing, publishing, and food
Economic Problems
A result of the growth of Washington’s white-collar
employment in the 1980s was an increasing gap in income among the city’s
residents. Disadvantaged areas, predominantly black neighborhoods, became
subject to a plague of drugs and associated violence. These areas were
concentrated in the older sections of the northeast and the southeast quadrants
of the city. Even as downtown real estate values rose, so did Washington’s
murder rate. During the 1990s it became one of the most deadly cities in the
nation. While the region prospered through most of the last half of the
century, much of the inner city lagged behind. The city’s tax base declined as
more and more middle- and upper-middle-class families moved to the suburbs.

This lower tax base contributed to a fiscal crisis for the city.

Government and
Contemporary Issues
Unlike any other part of the United States, Washington
lacks full political representation. While its political structure has changed
over time, the city has remained subordinate to the federal government. This
situation is sustained under Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which
states, The Congress shall have power … to exercise exclusive legislation in
all cases whatsoever over such district … as may by the cession of particular
States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government. The
idea of exclusive jurisdiction solidified in 1783 when Congress, then meeting
in Philadelphia, faced angry veterans of the American Revolution who demanded
back pay. When Pennsylvania authorities failed to intervene to protect the
Congress, many members insisted that any permanent seat of government should be
under congressional control. From that virtually forgotten experience,
Washington remains without direct representation in the national government that
oversees much of its operation.

The Constitution, however, did not prohibit the
establishment of a lower government body to deal with local affairs. In 1802
Congress authorized an appointed mayor and an elected city council for
Washington. In 1820 it broadened the franchise and made the office of mayor
subject to popular election. In 1871 Congress substituted a largely appointed
territorial governmentalthough city residents still voted for a house of
delegatesas an instrument to consolidate the cities of Washington and
Georgetown with Washington County. When the experiment generated costs that
Congress found too expensive, it eliminated popular election in Washington in
1874 by placing local government under a three-person commission appointed by
the president.
Initially this system was favorably received for replacing
partisan politics with professional management. However, flaws of the
commission became apparent over time. In 30 investigations conducted between
1934 and 1941, Congress found that power and responsibility were poorly divided
between commissioners and different federal agencies, and that political whim
controlled most actions. Starting in 1949 and lasting for more than a decade,
the Senate voted repeatedly to grant Washington local elections. However, the
House District Committee refused for more than 20 years to bring the bill to
the floor for a vote. Finally in 1973, Congress authorized the popular election
of a mayor and city council for Washington.
In 1974 the Home Rule Act, which established the mayor and
city council, became law. The act, though restoring popular elections, retained
considerable power for Congress to review legislation and authorize
Washington’s budget. It also prohibited the city from taxing federal properties
or income earned in the city by people who commuted to work from outside the
district. These restrictions remain a cause of tension between city officials
and Congress.
In the mid-1970s local activists started an effort to
secure Washington’s independence. They argued that the Constitution dictates
only a maximum size for the federal district, not a minimum size. Therefore,
they suggested that the federal district shrink to the area between the White
House and the Capitol and that the residential portion of the District of
Columbia become a new state, New Columbia. Congress, however, failed even to
vote on the proposition until 1993, when the House of Representatives rejected
the measure, 277-153. Further efforts by city residents to secure
representation in Congress were rebuffed when a three-judge panel ruled in
March 2000 that it had no means to remedy their exclusion.

Marion Barry dominated local Washington politics during the
last quarter of the 20th century. He served as mayor all but four years from
1978 to early 1999. During his early years in office, Barry established a
reputation as an able administrator and a defender of home rule who was
committed to solving the city’s social problems. In later years, scandal
touched his administration, and in 1990 he lost a bid for a council seat after
he was arrested and convicted of smoking crack cocaine. After serving six
months in prison, he made a spectacular comeback, securing election first to
city council in 1992 and then as mayor in 1994. Barry’s return to power sparked
immediate controversy. However, it soon became clear that the city faced an
even greater crisis in a projected budget deficit of more than $700 million in

With the city unable to secure loans from the private
sector to pay its debts, Congress intervened by passing the District of
Columbia Financial Responsibility and Management Assistance Act of 1995. This
measure established a control board with significant powers, a move Congress
justified on grounds that poor management and overstaffing had jeopardized the
city’s credit. Under terms of the act, the president appointed five people to
the board to bring the city’s finances under control. Congress directed the
control board to cut jobs.
Barry, however, refused to cooperate with the control board,
and instead chose to stress the city’s needs. He claimed that Washington’s
problems derived more from inadequate revenues than high costs, and he urged
the federal government to pay more toward Washington’s obligations. He
recommended that the federal government assume many of the costs of state
functions borne by the city since 1974, but his proposal received no sympathy
in Congress. However, two years later, without input from the mayor, President
Bill Clinton incorporated Barry’s approach in his proposed federal budget. In
August 1997 the national government raised its share of Medicare and highway
costs in the city, assumed responsibility for funding Washington’s pension
plan, and took over operation of the District’s prison system.
In accepting these measures, Congress insisted on
exercising greater influence in Washington. It empowered the control board to
choose its own city manager and to extend its operational control over all but
a small portion of daily operations. Under the terms Congress set in
establishing the control board, these powers will revert to the city only after
it achieves four balanced budgets in a row. After the election of Anthony
Williams, who replaced Barry as mayor in early 1999, Congress returned many of
the powers of government to the city. The control board retained significant
authority, however, which left Washington with limited control of its own local
affairs at the beginning of the 21st century.
Introduction to Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh was the nation’s foremost industrial city of the
19th century and was famous for its steel production. Beginning in the 1970s it
underwent severe reindustrialization as its massive steel complexes began to
close. Today Pittsburgh is a postindustrial city, with an economy based on
services, especially medical, financial, corporate, and educational, rather
than steel.

Pittsburgh sits astride the Monongahela and Allegheny
rivers where they unite to form the Ohio River. Much of the city lies on hills
surrounding this historic river junction, although Pittsburgh’s downtown core
is clustered on a wedge of level ground framed by the rivers and dubbed the
Golden Triangle. Winters in Pittsburgh can be cold and snowy and summers hot
and humid, but seasons are usually moderate. The average high temperature in
January is 1 C (34 F) and the average low is -8 C (19 F); the average high
in July is 28 C (83 F) and the average low is 16 C (62 F). The city
annually receives 936 mm (36.9 in) of precipitation, with accumulations evenly
distributed throughout the year.

The city developed around a frontier fort used by both the
British and the French in the 18th century. In 1794 Pittsburgh was incorporated
as a borough and in 1816 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted it city
status. It is named after William Pitt, prime minister of Britain in the late
18th century.

Pittsburgh and its Metropolitan
Pittsburgh occupies a land area of 143.7 sq km (55.5 sq
mi). Over the years it has grown primarily by annexation. Between 1868 and
1900, for example, the city increased its land area nearly 16 fold to 73 sq km
(28 sq mi). In 1907 it annexed the neighboring industrial city of Allegheny,
increasing its land area by 21 sq km (8 sq mi) and its population by 150,000.

Average elevation of the city is 226 m (743 ft).

Pittsburgh is the center of a metropolitan area covering
Allegheny, Westmoreland, Washington, Beaver, Butler, and Fayette counties, a
region of 11,976 sq km (4624 sq mi). The metropolitan area has several small
cities and substantial towns, including Butler, Greensburg, McKeesport,
Uniontown, and Washington. Among Pittsburgh’s suburbs are Bethel Park, Fox
Chapel, McCandless, Monroeville, Mount Lebanon, Penn Hills, and Sewickly.

Pittsburgh has many distinct neighborhoods; 90 are officially recognized.

The city is remarkable for its grand entrances, especially
if approached from the west through the Fort Pitt tunnel and bridge or from the
north on Interstate 279 and the Fort Duquesne or Veterans bridges. The city’s
core remains hidden by hills until travelers come upon its central business
district, the Golden Triangle, centered where the Allegheny and Monongahela
rivers join to form the Ohio River. Greeting visitors is Point State Park, with
its tall lighted fountain at the triangle’s tip, and a number of uniquely
designed skyscrapers.

Notable among Pittsburgh’s buildings are the Gateway Center
Complex (1950-1953), the Gothic towers of the PPG World Headquarters (1984),
One Mellon Bank Center (1983), One Oxford Centre (1983), the Columbia Natural
Gas Building (1987), Fifth Avenue Place (1987), and the USX Tower (1971), at 64
stories the tallest building between New York and Chicago. Other architectural
landmarks within the Golden Triangle include the Allegheny County Courthouse
and Jail (1888), designed by the noted American architect Henry Hobson
Richardson; the Trinity Cathedral (1872); the First Presbyterian Church (1905);
and the Union Trust Building (today Two Mellon Bank Center, 1916).

The population of Pittsburgh has steadily declined since
1950, when it peaked at 676,806 residents. While some people left the city
proper for suburban communities within the region, many moved out of the area
in search of jobs.

According to the 1990 census, the city had 369,879 persons,
a decrease of 12.8 percent from its population of 423,938 in 1980. Pittsburgh
was the nation’s 30th largest city in 1980 and the 40th largest city in 1990.

In 1994 it ranked 45th. The population of Pittsburgh in 1998 was 340,520.

The population of Allegheny County dropped from 1,450,085
in 1980 to 1,336,449 in 1990. The number of residents in the six-county
metropolitan area fell from 2,571,000 in 1980 to 2,395,000 in 1990. However,
the decline in population in the metropolitan area halted in the 1990s, with
estimates of the 1995 population virtually unchanged from the count five years

Pittsburgh and Allegheny County have a relatively elderly
population compared to many other citiesin 1990 some 17.9 percent of city
residents were age 65 years or older, compared to 12.5 percent for the country
as a whole.

Pittsburgh had large immigration from Great Britain,
Ireland, and Germany through the first century or so of its existence. Later
the nationalities of those arriving shifted to Poles, Hungarians, Serbs,
Croatians, Italians, and Russian Jews. Most emigration to the city halted at
the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Since then relatively few people have come
to Pittsburgh from other countries, even though the nation as a whole has seen
a large increase in Hispanic and Asian immigration.

While foreign-born persons made up only 4.6 percent of the
city’s population in 1990, Pittsburgh retains a strong ethnic character. Many
neighborhoods have a clear ethnic identification, such as Bloomfield (Italian),
the South Side and Polish Hill (Polish), and Squirrel Hill (Jewish). The
eastern neighborhoods of Point Breeze, Shadyside, and Squirrel Hill are
attractive city living areas, while other sections of the city afford views of
the rivers and the Golden Triangle from houses constructed on steep slopes.

Pittsburgh’s black population began to arrive far back in
the city’s history, but its biggest growth came in the first half of the 20th
century largely through migration from the South. Blacks predominate in several
areas throughout the city, the largest being Beltzhoover, the Hill,
Homewood-Brushton, and Manchester. The black community possesses a rich
cultural heritage in jazz and art, as well as having been the sponsor of the
two of greatest baseball teams in the former Negro League, the Crawfords and
the Homestead Grays.

According to the 1990 census, whites are 72.1 percent of
the population, blacks 25.9 percent, Asians and Pacific Islanders 1.6 percent,
and Native Americans 0.2 percent. The remainder are of mixed heritage or did
not report ethnicity. Hispanics, who may be of any race, are 0.9 percent of the

Because of its location west of the Allegheny Mountains,
excellent river transportation, and high quality bituminous coal deposits,
Pittsburgh in the 19th century became one of the nation’s most industrialized
cities. It was best known for its steel production, but it also produced many
other products. Manufactures included aluminum (from the Aluminum Company of
America, now ALCOA); electrical generators and appliances (Westinghouse
Electric); glass (Pittsburgh Plate Glass, now PPG Industries); coke-making
machinery (Koppers); railroad cars and locomotives (Pressed Steel Car Company
and Pittsburgh Locomotive); coke and coal chemicals (H. C. Frick & Company
and Pittsburgh Coal Company); and food products (H. J. Heinz). Extensive coal
mining was also carried on in the Pittsburgh area as well as the processing of
coke, essential to the steel making process, from soft coal.

By the mid-1980s, however, many of the region’s
manufacturing plants had gone out of business or left the area. The greatest
losses were in steel, with the elimination of over 100,000 steel and
steel-related jobs between 1978 and 1983. By the mid-1990s what once was the
world’s greatest steel making complex had been reduced to only one major
integrated mill (the Edgar Thompson Works); a specialty steel plant (Allegheny
Ludlum); a strip mill (the Irwin Works); and two plants where coke was produced
as a by-product. A dramatic sight is the empty land lining the river banks in
the Monongahela Valley where steel mills formerly stood. Numerous projects,
however, are planned for these sites. For example, the Pittsburgh Technology
Park was built on a former industrial site on the north side of the Monongahela

The economy of Pittsburgh is now based on services rather
than manufacturing. The region’s largest employer is the University of
Pittsburgh, especially the University Health Center. Other universities and
colleges, such as Carnegie Mellon University and Duquesne University, are major
employers. In addition, the region’s corporate headquarters, as well as branch
offices of other firms, provide considerable employment. Pittsburgh also serves
as the U.S. center for a number of foreign corporations. The region’s
high-technology sector has grown, as has the number of firms involved either in
environmental cleanup or the manufacture of pollution control equipment. Today
the number of workers in service jobs far exceeds those in manufacturing.

Pittsburgh’s transportation network includes a new airport,
opened in 1992, that serves as a major airline hub. Principal highways are the
Pennsylvania Turnpike (Interstate 76 running east and west), Interstate 376
(the Parkway East), Interstate 279, Interstate 79 (connecting with Interstate
279), and State Route 28 (from the north) as well as on other state roads.

Amtrak provides rail passenger service east to New York and west to Chicago.

Freight lines still carry large amounts of coal and other heavy goods in and out
of Pittsburgh. The Port of Pittsburgh is a leading inland port. City and county
residents are served by Port Authority Transit of Allegheny County, which
operates an extensive network that includes two major busways and a light-rail
system with a downtown subway loop.

Pittsburgh has a mayor-council form of government, with the
mayor acting as chief executive and the nine-member council setting city
policy. All are elected to four-year terms. The Port Authority Allegheny County
(urban transit) and the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority (waste disposal)
offer service throughout the county, while the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer
Authority and the Pittsburgh Parking Authority operate only in the city.

Pittsburgh developed initially as a commercial city because
of its location west of the Allegheny Mountains at the headwaters of the Ohio
River, a major transportation route. In 1811 the first steamboat to ply the
Mississippi River system was built in Pittsburgh, and the New Orleans steamed down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to its
namesake city in Louisiana. The Pennsylvania Mainline Canal reached Pittsburgh
in 1837 and the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1851. As the 19th century progressed,
Pittsburgh became one of the nation’s greatest industrial cities, and was a
leading producer of glass, iron, and textiles. Cheap energy in the form of
high-quality bituminous coal found nearby in a coal field called the Pittsburgh
Seam played a major role in the city’s rise.

The Pittsburgh Renaissance lasted until 1969, when Mayor
Peter H. Flaherty ended the public-private partnership and instead advocated
neighborhood renewal and tax reduction. Richard S. Caliguiri became mayor in
1976 and restored the public-private partnership with the beginning of
Renaissance II in 1980. As a result, Pittsburgh’s downtown remained viable and
service jobs grew, despite a severe downturn in the steel industry. Pittsburgh
in the 1990s is both a modern postindustrial city and a city that retains
remnants of its industrial past. Pittsburgh was once called the Smoky City,
but today the Renaissance City is still in the making.

Comparison between Pittsburgh and Washington D.C.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau,

Number in Pittsburgh
Number in
Washington, D.C.




Total population


Under 5 years
5 to 17 years
18 to 20 years
21 to 24 years
25 to 44 years
45 to 54 years
55 to 59 years
60 to 64 years
65 to 74 years
75 to 84 years
85 years and over

Under 18 years

65 years and over

Total households
Family households (families)
Married-couple families
Other family, male householder
Other family, female householder
Nonfamily households
Householder living alone
Householder 65 years and over

Persons living in households
Persons per household

Persons living in group quarters
Institutionalized persons
Other persons in group quarters

American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
Asian or Pacific Islander
Other race

Hispanic origin (of any race)

Total housing units

Occupied housing units
Owner occupied
Renter occupied
Vacant housing units
For seasonal, recreational, or occasional use

Homeowner vacancy rate
Rental vacancy rate

Persons per owner-occupied unit
Persons per renter-occupied unit

Units with over 1 person per room

1-unit detached
1-unit attached
2 to 4 units
5 to 9 units
10 or more units
Mobile home, trailer, or other

Specified owner-occupied housing units
Less than $50,000
$50,000 to $99,999
$100,000 to $149,999
$150,000 to $199,999
$200,000 to $299,999
$300,000 or more

Median (dollars)

Specified renter-occupied housing units paying cash rent
Less than $250
$250 to $499
$500 to $749
$750 to $999
$1,000 or more

Median (dollars)

Occupied housing units
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
Asian or Pacific Islander
Other race

Hispanic origin (of any race)

Bottom of Form
Top of Form
1 Howard Gillette,
B.A., Ph.D, Professor of History, Rutgers UniversityCamden. Author of Between Justice and Beauty: Race, Planning,
and the Failure of Urban Policy in Washington, D.C. Coauthor of Washington Seen: A Photographic History,
1875-1965. “Washington, D.C.”. Microsoft Encarta Online
Encyclopedia 2001, (11 Apr. 2001)
2 Joel A. Tarr, B.S., M.A., Ph.D., Richard S. Galiguiri
Professor of Urban and Environmental History and Policy, Carnegie Mellon
University. Author of The Impact of
Transportation Innovation on Changing Spatial Patterns: Pittsburgh, 1850-1934
and Pittsburgh-Sheffield: Sister Cities.”Pittsburgh”.

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2001, (11 Apr.

3 Pittsburgh
Metropolitan Region Metropolitan Initiative, Sustainable Development in the
Pittsburgh Metropolitan Region, Briefing Paper, August 4, 1997
4 Susyn Schweers, Downtown dilemmas: a tale of three
cities.(Kansas City, Missouri) (Washington, D.C.) (San Jose, California), Business
Journal, July 7, 2000,
5 Martha Cooke Pittsburgh Cahners
Publishing Company, in association with The Gale Group and LookSmart., May 2000
6 Patricia
A. Michaels, Environmental
Externalities, Bt Guide,
7 U.S. Census Bureau,