Hypothesis Enzymes Hypothesis Enzymes such as Catalase are large protein molecules that are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. In their globular structure, one or more polypeptide chains twist and fold, bringing together a small number of amino acids to form the active site, or the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds and the reaction takes place. Enzyme and substrate fail to join together if their shapes do not match exactly. This ensures that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction.

The enzyme itself is unaffected by the reaction. When the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. Enzymes work to change the rate of a reaction without being absorbed by the reaction. The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called the enzyme’s substrate. The product is what the enzymes convert the substrate into. Substrate + Enzyme = Product Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver.

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It is used for removing Hydrogen Peroxide from the cells. Hydrogen Peroxide is the poisonous by-product of metabolism. Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide (which is the substrate) into water and oxygen as shown in the equations below: Hydrogen peroxide + Catalase Water + Oxygen H2O2 + Catalase H2O + O2 It is able to speed up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide because the shape of its active site matches the shape of the Hydrogen Peroxide molecule. This type of reaction where a molecule is broken down into smaller pieces is called an anabolic reaction. In this experiment Apparatus ? Conical flask ? Rubber bung ? Gas tube ? Gas syringe ? Measuring cylinders ? H2O2 ? H2O ? Potato split into 4g tubes (enzyme catalase) ? Clamp stand ? Cork borer ? Glass rod ? Thermometer ? 2 decimal place balance ? Pestle and Mortar ? Sand ? Beaker ? Scalpel ? White tile ? Safety goggles ? Forceps ? Stopwatch The apparatus was set up as shown: A pilot test was carried out to figure out how much and in what form the apparatus would need to be in. This is what was concluded; the potato should be ground down with sand (which is unreactive with H2O2) into a paste.

This gives a larger surface area that permits the reaction to go faster because the substrate molecules can get to the enzyme molecules faster and more efficiently. The reaction will be timed as soon as the solution (H2O2 and H2O) is added. The oxygen that evolves will be measured and recorded every 30 seconds until the reaction finishes. The concentration of the solution will be variegated in the experiment. This is the only element that is varied everything else must stay the same to keep the investigation unbiased. 25cm3 of solution was chosen to be used because in the pilot experiment this was all that was necessary to produce a sufficient amount of oxygen in the gas syringe so that it could be easily measured.

If there were more solution it would take longer to pour in to the conical flask therefore gas would escape before the rubber bung could be fixed into place to seal the conical flask. If less solution were to be used the reaction would take longer because there wouldnt be as many substrate molecules to react with the enzymes. The solution will be measured in a measuring cylinder. The range was selected because it is easily multiplied into 100, which is what is needed to calculate percentages. The measuring cylinder was chosen to be used over all other methods of measuring because it is easily available.

Table to show H2O2 : H2O Percentage of H2O2 Volume H2O2 (cm3) Volume of H2O(cm3) 100% 25 0 80% 20 5 60% 15 10 40% 10 15 20% 5 20 0% 0 25 The enzyme catalase works best at a warm temperature so to speed the experiment up the conical flask will be in a water bath at the temperature range 40-45 oC. The water bath needs to be kept at a constant temperature because the enzymes will then be working at the same constant rate. The mass of the potato needs to be kept the same at 4g so there is the same amount of enzyme in each experiment. The overall amount of solution needs to be kept constant to ensure that the % concentration is correct. The oxygen evolved will be measured every 30 seconds from the moment the solution is added to the potato.

This will be done so that the results from each experiment can be compared at the end. The experiment will need to be repeated at least 3 times to allow for an average to be taken, and to be able to exclude any anomalous results and still obtain an average. Overall the experiment will be done 18 times. Although it will be permitted to carry the experiment out a few more times if one proceeds to go wrong. The results will be recorded in a table that is clear and easy to understand. Here is a sample of the table that will be used: Time (s) Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Average Rate of reaction 30 60 90 120 ETC The results will be plotted into an evolved graph and a rate of reaction graph. Rate of reaction is measured by Average Time Once the graphs have been drawn trends will be looked for and identified. Prediction Once the Hydrogen peroxide is added to the enzyme catalase (potato) it should begin to fizz violently.

This is a sign that the two substances are reacting together. This will show that the catalase is decomposing the hydrogen peroxide so fast that it can be seen. The enzyme catalase and the substrate hydrogen peroxide will join together to make the products oxygen and water. This is called the lock and key method. The enzyme catalase is specific to this reaction. Because the reaction is being heated in the water bath it will go much faster and be easier to see the increase in oxygen evolved.

It will also allow for a third replicate to be taken because the time allocated for the investigation is brief and without the reaction being speeded up there may only be time for one or two experiments for each concentration. As the substrate concentration increases, the rate should go up at a directly proportional rate until the solution becomes saturated with the substrate hydrogen peroxide. Once the saturation point is reached, adding more substrate will make no difference. If the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled the rate of reaction should double as well. The rate should steadily increase when more substrate is added because more of the enzymes active sites are being used which results in more reactions so the required amount of oxygen is made more quickly. Once the amount of substrate molecules added exceeds the number of active sites available then the rate of reaction will no longer go up. This is because the maximum number of reactions are being done at once so any extra substrate molecules have to wait until some of the active sites become available.

Method To test out how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction this is what has been done: ? Grind up exactly 4g of potato with a pinch of sand (the amount of sand doesnt need to be accurate because it doesnt affect the results) in the pestle and mortar. Add this to the conical flask. ? Use the measuring cylinder to measure out 25cm3 of hydrogen peroxide the 100% concentration. It is important to measure the amount accurately to ensure the experiment is impartial. ? Prepare the water bath by using hot water from the tap and altering it using some cold water until the range (40-45oC) is reached.

? Pour the hydrogen peroxide into the conical flask and immediately insert the bung, at the same time start the stopwatch. ? Bubbles should start to rise up the conical flask and fizzing will be noticeable. The gas syringe will start to move quite rapidly. ? Shake the conical flask vigorously before every reading is taken. ? Recordings will be taken from the gas syringe every 30 seconds.

? When the reaction has finished wait for approximately 2 minutes to see if any more oxygen evolves then stop the stopwatch. ? Repeat the experiment twice more for that concentration and note the results. ? Repeat the experiments 3 times for each concentration 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0%, repeating the experiments will help …