. Hacking in it self is not a crime. It is otherwise known as
unauthorised access.

. There are clubs devoted to hacking. In Germany, Holland etc, discuss
techniques etc.

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. Much of hacking is treated as intellectual training. Costs us a lot of
expenses to protect our computers. Companies spend millions of pounds
protecting themselves.

. A lot of hacking done by past employees seeing as they have passwords
etc. insiders knowledge.

. At one level the motive for the doing is the challenge.

. Software comes with default user names and passwords which make it
easy for the hacker to access.

. FRAUD. Large companies employ hackers to access enemy’s hackers and to
test companies system.

. Electronic crime is low risk high yield. The banks are not keen on
publishing they have been fucked.

. Credit cards stolen then used for hackers own use. (Fraudulent
. Theft of data. Industrial espionage. Breaking into factory and seeing
how things are made. Plans for future products, contact lists etc.

IDENTITY THEFT, a criminal can take over someone else’s identity. This
can cause a lot of damage. Someone has passed themselves off as David
Blunkett, blind MP.

. data can be stolen by illegally hacking into a computer and
downloading data and or by stealing an actual computer (laptop) don’t
access someone’s password from their computer, take out the hardisk
and plug it into your computer. The files on the CIA’s computers are

. When accessing the net, you download files that you know nothing
about, paedophilia etc.

. FRAUD ON THE INTERNET, one of the weaknesses of the net is the lack of
control; it is not controlled by any one person.

. Goods can be offered for sale but never delivered, fraud.

. Offers downloads, pays for it and never gets the goods.

. There are certain schemes which provide some assurance.

. Sites that you hand out your credit card number should have SSL –
Secure Socket Layer. This encrypts data at my end and at the other so
that no nosey hackers can access it. The URL also starts with http,
and a closed padlock at the bottom of the screen, which shows the site
is secure.

. In the UK, reputable web-sites may have the ‘Which’ (consumer service)
logo on the site.

. VIRUS’, now can spread much faster than in previous years. The biggest
distributor of viruses is email not floppy anymore. ORIGINATION –
programmer creates programme to cause mischief and or distress.

TRANSMISSION – often the virus is attached to a normal program. It
then copies itself to other software on the hard disk. You can in
theory track down the origin of the virus, IP address etc. INFECTION –
there are virus’ that are bollocks and others that completely mess up
your computer. BIOS chip can be erased, therefore causing you to buy a
new motherboard. The worst ones cause subtle destruction. Over a
period of months the virus mess’s up your work and can cause of
bankruptcy. This can also affect hospitals and anywhere that uses a
computer system.

. LOGIC BOMBS – similar to a virus, may be delivered by a virus.

. Can be written to destroy, or even subtly alter the contents of a
computer system.

. May require a further signal for activation
. May require a further signal to prevent activation, as in case of
. Sometime may cause companies to hand over money.

. Many organisations would not want to have the shitty security exposed.

For example banks etc, however secret service etc doesn’t give a
monkeys and will expose the hacker.

. DIGITAL CRIMES – computer misuse act of 1990:
. 1. unauthorised access to computer programs or data
. 2. unauthorised access with a further criminal intent
. Software copyrights. Covered by – copyright designs and patents act of
. It is illegal to run pirated software. It is illegal to create a copy