Sample Scholarship Essays

Gandhi

Gandhi
On October 2, 1869, the little brown saint was brought into the world;
during this time India was under the British monarchy. During his early years
he did not show the signs of developing into the great leader that he eventually
became but nevertheless Gandhi aspired to be a lawyer, follow in the footsteps
of his father and become a respected member of the community. Throughout his
life Gandhi fought against colour prejudice, promoted religious harmony and
toiled laboriously to gain independence for his country.


Gandhi was a great man who brought about many changes all over the world
but especially in India. His means of bringing about change and the effect he
had on people made him a respected and loved individual.

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Gandhi travelled to South Africa for the first time in the summer of
1892, to try his luck at a law firm. He was not aware of how deeply he would be
involved in South African affairs while he proceeded on his journey. Indians
in South Africa suffered many disabilities. For instance, an Indian had to
carry a pass if he appeared on the streets after 9 p.m.(Pg. 24). Gandhi felt
this was completely unfair and by the time he had finished his campaign against
colour prejudice in South Africa, the three pound tax on farm indentured
labourers was annulled, Hindu, Muslim and Parsi marriages were declared valid;
free Indians and their wives could continue to come into the country from India
(Pg. 47-48). Gandhi achieved this status for Indians in South Africa by a method
called Satyagraha or passive resistance. This involved a non-violent means
of refusing to co-operate with the governments wishes, thus forcing the
government to meet the demands of the resistors. This method of nonco-operation
earned Gandhi a great deal of respect, world-wide acclaim and helped him
considerably reduce legalized racism against Indians in South Africa.


Gandhi was a very patriotic man and believed that people in his country
should become one in unity, but he knew that there were obstacles that had to be
overcome. One of the hardest of these obstacles was easing Muslim and Hindu
tensions. Religious tension was one aspect that Gandhi felt he should try to
bring to an equilibrium. He knew that the relations between Hindus and Muslims
would determine the future of India. He wrote a 6,000 word article on Hindu-
Muslim Tension. Its Cause and Cure(Pg. 36). Gandhi did not feel that this
was enough and was assured of it when he heard about Hindu-Muslim riots (and)
the forcible kidnapping and conversion of women and children from one religious
community by men of the other (Pg. 49). The situation, as Gandhi, concluded
were getting out of hand and so he decided that he needed another means of
communicating with his fellow man. He fasted, abstained from eating, to reform
those who loved him. (He said) you cannot fast against a tyrant for (he) is
incapable of love therefore inaccessible to a weapon of love like fasting(Pg.

23). Gandhi made up his mind to fast either until death or until reform. This
was enough to bring instantaneous results and soon riots ceased and there were
weeks without religiously motivated killings or demonstrations. Gandhis ploy
had worked. People all over the world admired the Mahatma (father) and his
methods of controlling a whole population by their love for him. This was one
stepping stone which had been safely passed and no longer posed a threat to
India.


Throughout his life Gandhi always pondered ways to better the lives of
others. He put himself and his needs last before those of others. Gandhi knew
that to better the lives of Indians living in India he had to work towards
Independence. One major event that paved the way to achieving this was the
civil disobedience of the Salt Laws. The laws made it punishable to possess
salt not purchased from the government salt monopoly ( Pg. 23). Gandhi felt
that nothing but organized non-violence (could) check the organized violence of
the British government…the non-violence would be expressed through civil-
disobedience… and convert the British people making them see the wrong they
have done to India(Pg. 33). Gandhi proceeded to march 241 miles in 24 days (
Pg. 35) thus rivet the attention of all of India. When Gandhi reached the end
of his march, he was at the coast where there were piles of salt, so he picked
up a pile of salt as an act of defiance. He was arrested but people all over
the country were fascinated and intrigued and followed his example by also
disobeying the Salt Laws. This demonstrated to the British government that they
were subjugating India and gave the Indians conviction that they should lift
the foreign yoke off their shoulders(Pg. 102). This event foreshadowed the
achievement of India gaining Independence in the August of 1947. People in
India now felt that they had some reason to work towards independence and others
joined in the efforts to free the country from British rule.


Although Gandhi did lead his country to Independence, his attempts in
unifying Hindus and Muslims in India failed miserably. Riots ceased for a while
but restarted. He led a bad example by getting imprisoned. Some people viewed
this as breaking the law and not changing the system. Although Gandhi may have
failed in his attempts of unifying Hindus and Muslims, he did succeed in
achieving Independence for India and as a bonus Muslims in India additionally
gained something, the birth of their new nation, Pakistan.


Gandhis preaching of non-violence worked on many occasions but also
resulted in the bloodshed of thousands of others. People were so caught up in
gaining Independence from the British that they forgot Gandhis preachings of
non-violence and riots ensued and thousands upon thousands of people were killed.

Although many people were killed, if Gandhi hadnt preached non-violence, a
great many more people would have lost their lives fighting for Independence,
instead millions of people were saved and the end result was victory.


Gandhi was very successful in changing the ways many Hindus viewed
Hinduism and he strengthened their beliefs in the religion. He changed their
ideas about the caste system and he preached peace and non-violence to Hindus
all over the country. He most of all emphasized abstinence, self-denial and
sacrificing. These various lessons made people better human beings with a
better outlook on life.


Mahatma (Mohandas K.) Gandhi was a great leader who captured the hearts
of many all over the world just by the techniques he used to achieve his
objectives. He was the most unselfish, hardworking and saintly character anyone
ever met until an assassins bullet prematurely ended his life at the age of
seventy-eight. He fought hard and abolished prejudice against Indians in South
Africa, he worked towards easing religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims
in India and he freed India from British rule and gained them independence
through a means unlike any country has ever used, non-violence. His legacy is
courage, his lesson truth, his weapon love. His life is his monument.


Gandhi

Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2 1869 in Porbandar India. He grew up in a very wealthy and spiritual home. His father got very ill while Gandhi was a young child, which put him through a lot of stress. The way he got rid of the stress was by taking long walks in the night. Which sooner or later turned into smoking, shoplifting, and even eating meat.

Which Gandhi was a vegetarian. After Gandhi completed his early education, he went to London to study in a university. He was trying to become a lawyer. After he was through with school, he moved back to India. Shortly after, an Indian firm wanted him to travel to South Africa. When he arrived, he realized white people do not welcome Indians.

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One day because colored people were not allowed in first class he got kicked off a train. That was when he decided he would never be pushed down again and to fight for Indian rights that whites took away from them. At this time, Gandhi made a rule to himself that he would never be violent in his life, even if others used it. Also he started fighting for the rights of Indian workers in South Africa and he had done a very good job. This was a great turning point in his life when he exchanged from a shy timid boy to a grown outspoken man who always speaks his mind.

He came back to India in 1914 where he was not involved in politics for a long while. He was very friendly with the British Empire but got very mad on the passing of the Rowlatt act that made those suspected of sedition able to be imprisoned without a trial. He instantly called a Satyagraha struggle against Great Britain. By 1920, Gandhi was very influential among Indians. He called a massive boycott of British goods and services, including schools.

With a leader like Gandhi, the Indian people were no longer afraid of their foreign rulers and began protesting. When police arrived, they lined up to be arrested, hoping to obstruct the system and stop the British. Thousands were arrested and the movement was mostly a sucsess, but a few violent outbreaks like in the previous protest caused the INC and Gandhi to call the protest off and admit that it was a mistake. Gandhi himself was arrested shortly after in 1922 and sentenced to six years in jail. Possibly, his most amazing achievement was the Satyagraha against the salt tax in 1930.Gandhi and many followers made the famous Dandi March to the Arabian Sea where they made their own salt by evaporating water from the sea. Therefore, over 60,000 people were jailed.

Less than a year later, Gandhi meet with Lord Irwin and the two agreed to allow Gandhi to act as a representative at conference in London, but the conference failed to help them. He was soon jailed after his return to India. While in jail, he found out that the new constitution would discriminate against the untouchable rank by placing them in a different electorate. Gandhi immediately started fasting for change. The government knew they had to change this part of the constitution quickly, for if Gandhi died, then revolution would be imminent. When World War 2 started, the Gandhi and INC supported Britain on the condition that they withdraw completely from India.

When the war ended, India became independent shortly afterward, in 1947. But it split, as it became self-ruling, forming Pakistan and India. Gandhi was disturbed that Indian independence did not come with Indian unity, but nevertheless submerged himself into helping repair the riot ravaged areas and fasting for peace in those places where the fighting continued over religion. In that way, he achieved two great accomplishments by stopping the riots in Calcutta in September of 1947 as well as causing a truce in Delhi in January of 1948. The British Empire ruled the country of India for about 200 years.

During its reign, the British Empire popularly known as the East India Company made full use of its power. It used the products of the country. It even took away land from the poor people in order to grow indigo which was the main portion of the dye industry in Britain. Lots of injustices were done to people. The British Empire created differences between the people by telling that they were of different religions.

The worst thing that they did was to use the plan of Divide and Rule. An example of this is that the state of Bengal was divided into East and West Bengal because of religion. They used different ways to create hatred between the Indian people. This lead to many fights and violent outbreaks between people. Mostly these violent outbreaks were because of the hatred attitudes between Hindus and Muslims.

What the British Empire created between Indian people can still be seen. They divided the whole country into two parts based on Religion. The result of this was two different nations forming from a single nation, Pakistan and India. The envy between these two still persists as a result of the conflict created by the British Empire did not know how to act against an enemy who does not use violence. Gandhis last months of his life were darkened by shared conflict between Hindu and Muslim; but his fasts to shame the instigators helped to avert deeper national tragedy. However, Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic, assassinated Mahatma Gandhi on January 30 1948 at a prayer meeting in Delhi. In his life time, Mahatma the great soul Gandhi was venerated as a moral teacher, a reformer who fought to see India as free from rank as from materialism, and a dedicated patriot who gave the Home Rule movement a new quality.

In Asia especially he has been regarded as a great sway for peace, whose teachings held a message not only for India, but for the whole world as well. Bibliography Gandhis last months of his life were darkened by shared conflict between Hindu and Muslim; but his fasts to shame the instigators helped to avert deeper national tragedy. However, Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic, assassinated Mahatma Gandhi on January 30 1948 at a prayer meeting in Delhi. In his life time, Mahatma the great soul Gandhi was venerated as a moral teacher, a reformer who fought to see India as free from rank as from materialism, and a dedicated patriot who gave the Home Rule movement a new quality. In Asia especially he has been regarded as a great sway for peace, whose teachings held a message not only for India, but for the whole world as well.

Religion.

Gandhi

Mohandas Gandhi was a religious man, however, his religious beliefs did not come from his childhood but from his studies that he began as a political activist in South Africa. Upon his return to India from England, he had had a rough start as a lawyer and accepted an offer to work on a case in South Africa. He ended up staying in South Africa for more than twenty years. In South Africa Gandhi became a leader of the Indian immigration population. Gandhi had to learn skills to overcome caste, class, and religious divisions to build a base for dramatic mass actions. In the process, Gandhis religious development influenced his politics. He believed that the search for truth was the goal of human life, and since no one could ever be sure of having attained the ultimate truth, use of violence to enforce ones own necessarily partial understanding of it was sinful.

Gandhi had worked out the basic strategy of nonviolent resistance, which he called satyagraha. It consisted of training a core of volunteers who helped to lead mass marches and mass violations of specific laws that resulted in intentional mass arrests. Three satyagraha campaigns made him famous in India even before he returned. While he was still in South Africa, Gandhi wrote about India in his pamphlet, “Hind Swaraj, and targeted industrial civilization because he thought that was the real enemy.
The appeal of Gandhi’s non-violence strategy appealed to two groups of people. It appealed to masses of villagers because it was a collective way to resist, trying to rise above all the violence and show the dignity of their cause. It also appealed to the wealthy merchants, landlords, and small-holding peasants who supported Gandhi because it offered the hope of getting rid of the British while not threatening to destroy their property or endanger their economic and social position.

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Gandhi returned to India and joined the Indian National Congress during the First World War. The war was bringing an economic and political crisis for the British, and space opened up for Indian textile bosses to get a greater share of the home market. A growing section of them was impatient with British control of the market, and many became supporters of the nationalist movement.

The Rowlatt Act, which sought to extend war-time restrictions on civil rights, coincided with a strike wave by mill workers. Gandhi’s approach to the Rowlatt Act was to launch a satyagraha to channel people’s anger in a nonviolent direction. He called for mass demonstrations nationwide, but called them for a Sunday so as not to encourage work stoppages.

Mass marches and strikes broke out in many other cities, and the middle class started to fear the militancy of workers and peasants. Gandhi expressed this concern by condemning the violence that had broken out on both sides, though it was far from equal. Gandhi felt he had made a mistake in calling for mass civil disobedience without enough organizational and ideological control over the movement.

But the next mass movement, the Non-Cooperation Movement, also unleashed forces beyond Gandhi’s control, and he called the campaign off when a crowd in Chauri-Chaura responded to police beatings and gunfire by killing cops. The fact that Gandhi could call an all-India movement–and then call it off when it got too militant for his taste shows how important he had become to the national movement.

Gandhi also started the Civil Disobedience Movement which began with the campaign to violate the British salt monopoly. The salt satyagraha escalated quickly. Mass marches to the coast to break the British salt monopoly led to mass arrests.Throughout the country, peasants who had refused to pay their land taxes physically resisted police attempts to seize their property.

Gandhi was always trying to reconcile class divisions, and his commitment to nonviolence was one way to keep the struggle calm. The refusal to lessen the use of physical force virtually ruled out strikes as a method of struggle. Despite Gandhi’s efforts, class divisions could not be smoothed over, and Gandhi’s campaigns would continually move beyond the boundaries he tried to impose.

A combination of factors pushed the British to finally accept that they could no longer hold India. It was clear that the British empire was crumbling. Inside India, Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement, which became the biggest revolt against the British since 1857. But after the war, when Britain was negotiating terms of departure with Congress and the Muslim League, the revolt continued without Congress support.

In the end, Congress agreed to partition off Pakistan because the party was not prepared to support class struggle. The British, for their part, were eager for Congress to take over, since they realized that an Indian government could more easily put down the wave of strikes than they themselves could.

After India had achieved its independence, Gandhi personally journeyed to areas where communal violence had broken out and did his best to persuade people to stop, walking barefoot through the riot-torn slums and threatening “to fast unto death. His moral authority was able to stop the violence sometimes, but when he left, all the social and economic problems that led people to see another religious group as their main enemy were still in place.
Gandhi died for upholding Muslim equality and was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu.Gandhi’s principle of nonviolence repeatedly held back many struggles at key moments. As a result, privileged groups in the urban centers and countryside were able to detach the struggle for political independence from the struggle for radical social changeusing Gandhi’s own goals of social justice. The British were gone, but the bureaucracy and police they built up still functioned with little change. Gandhi’s will had been strong, but class forces proved stronger.
The result of Gandhis nonviolent political action movements was that an exploitative class structure cannot be broken without violence somewhere along the way. Property rights, defended by state violence, have never yielded to the peaceful pressure of the exploited class. Therefore, no exploiting class has ever left the stage of history without being pushed.

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