One of the biggest problems with the use of cloning is the decline in genetic diversity, continued use of cloning would lead to inbreeding, wide scale, conformity. Humans would be taking nature into their own hands.
Over the past billion years, life has grown into a fascinating structure. Of the 300,000 kinds of plants and more than a million kinds of animals that are known today, no two are exactly alike yet within families there are marked similarities (Monsanto 18). From generation to generation family resemblance is so obvious that it is not thought about. Farmers and breeders have used the obvious fact of family resemblance for centuries to improve the productivity of their plants and animals. They have created better hybrids by breeding together the largest of the most disease resistant. Though they didnt know it, they were applying basic genetic engineering.
In 1989, molecular biologist Norton Zinder said,Today we begin (Begley 56). With these words, Zinder and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), formally launched a monumental effort that could rival in scope both the Manhattan Project, witch created the A-bomb, and the Apollo moon-landing program-and may exceed them in importance (Jaroff95). The Program will map the human and spell out for the world the entire message hidden in its chemical code. Robert Sinsheimer of the University of California at Santa Barbara says,The human gene is the complete set of instructions for making a human being (Begley57). The achievement of the project would launch a new era in medicine. They would be able to predict an individual vulnerability and could eventually develop new drugs to treat or even prevent them. Though they may not have known, this project was also the start of cloning.
Now of course the world has heard of the famous Dolly, the first mammal ever cloned from single adult cell. She is living proof that scientist had solved one of the most challenging problems of cell biology. Her creation has raised a troubling question, can humans, too, be cloned?(Begley53). Just think, parents could have their dying child copied, pro team owners their greatest players, and hospitals their best doctors.
In every cell of the human body, there contains the complete genetic makeup of the entire person. The cell, however, is programmed to be a certain thing such as bon or organ and that is all they become even though they have the makeup for the entire human body. Cloning is the process of manipulating a cell from an animal so that it grows into the exact duplicate of that animal (Encarta). According to psychologist Jerome Kagan of Harvard. You will never get 100 percent identity-never-because of chances factors and because environments are never exactly the same.
Believe it or not biologist have discovered yet another way to clone. In the old way, the in which Dolllywas cloned, they took the cell from the mammary gland. They would then use an electrical pulse to coax an adult cell into merging with a host egg whose nucleus had been removed. The success rate of this was 1 in 277 (Lemonick64). The new technique, in which scientist used mice, involves injecting just the adult nucleus into a nucleus-free host instead of using an electrical pulse. Secondly, they let it set for two hours before stimulating it to start dividing. The success rate was 2-3 in 100(Lemonick).
Another positive aspect of cloning, besides replicating humans and animals, is the ability to produce protein. If human genes are transferred into other organisms, like pigs and sheep, these animals can produce human proteins (The Future of Cloning 1). These animals can produce human proteins in its milk, or maybe even insulin to treat diabetes. Also, according to biologist Richard Seed, transgenic sheep have been altered to produce alpha-1-antitrypism, a drug that is used to treat cystic fibrosis. Transgenic animals are valuable to biomedical research and pharmaceutics and can be produced through nuclear transfer (Encarta). The production of trangenic animals is time consuming, expensive, and most importantly inefficient.
Through cloning, organ transplantation may become a more successful process. It will help in the shortage for transplantation. Xenotransplatation, transplanting organs from on especies to another, provides a solution to organ shortage (Internet). As a result of other organisms having different protein coats on the cell surface than human cells there is often rejection. Through nuclear transfer, transgenic animals can be produced to create human proteins on their cell surfaces (Silver87). This process would reduce the risk of rejection during xenptransplatation. According to future cloning research, human organs for personal transplation.
Cloning in general may benefit future research. Animals could be cloned especially for research. Identical animals would reduce variability in experiments. Consequently, scientist would then need fewer animals for an experiment. Three generations of genetically identical cloned laboratory mice have been produced, indicating that cloning will be an indispensable tool to the research biologist in the future according to scientists at the University of Hawaii.
In recent interview Lee Silver, a biologist at Princeton University, was asked about his most controversial claim. Will genetic engineering ultimately lead to two or more human species that would not be able to interbreed? His response was, I believe this could happen because engineering of embryos is inevitable. I can see ways in witch genetic engineering will be made safe and efficient, and there will be a market for it-parents who want their children advantages in life(Boyce1).
There is already a huge gap between the rich and the poor, and it shows itself in what parents can do for their children. The children of people who have money arguably get better educations, better health care and are provided with more opportunities. Silver sees that continuing and becoming more pronounced in the future and extending into the genetic realm.
Despite all of these positive things that come from cloning, it does have its negative sides,to. For instances, who is going to have this money to pay for something like this? Although no one has set a price for it yet, because they are not exactly sure they can do it, scientist agree that it will cost a great deal of money. Ranging anywhere from hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars.
Not only is money a big factor, but who is going to perform it. There are only 10laboratories that have the technology in the world able to clone humans according to Cornell University biologist W. Bruce Currie. Even at that, the success rate in cloning a sheep was 1 in 277 and the new way only 2-3 in 100. So time and money can be wasted. Biologist cant assure the world that they will be able to clone a human so we are better off just trying to live a normal healthy life.
If scientist are able to make human clones in the future, and make it affordable, they will have no real parents, even though they may resemble the individual who was made. The clone, however, could differ in that individuals personality, character, intelligence, and talents. If you put them in different environment, they wont grow to be the same. This was a big part in U.S. President Clintons decision on whether or not to ban it from the country.
When people talk about cloning the best basketball player or the medical societys best surgeon, those are all positive role models. What about somebody like Sadaam Hussien of Iraq getting cloned? Would the world really want a couple of clones like him?
The moral view of cloning is whether or not we should try to take over the role of God. When these clones die, where will they go? They have no real souls because God didnt create them. God created each human being differently for a purpose. If he would have wanted us to have exact copies. Then he would have made them. Instead he created twins and identical twins in which neither of them are exactly alike. They may resemble each other in looks, but their DNA is not the same. God brings who he wants into the world. Humans dont bring who they want.
Human cloning research would be unethical because it would inevitably cause the deaths of human embryos. Further, cloning a human for a particular purpose would violate that persons God given interest of others. Cloning research should not be permitted for any purpose.