ned violinist and violist who adored jazz but lacked the gift to emulate the uninhibited improvisations of the jazz musicians he admired, formed a dance band in the early twenties that played jazzy arrangements of popular and even classical melodies. Blues = a black vocal folk music, began as vocal (largely instrumental). Classical blues = based on 3 lines of text.Wild wame dont do the blues.Urban Blues = blues pieces written for publication and professional performance.W.C. Handy = father of the blues.Boggie woogie = arrived from blues (a popular piano style with the form and harmony of the blues, but a faster tempo and a dance beat.Jelly morton = blues pianst.Combo = small instrumental ( jazz band ) a small jazz ensemble.History of jazz = from new Oreans to chicago.Louis Armstrong =(1900-1971) violent childhood in New Orleans, became gentle, he played the cornet, and then formed his own band, and moved to the trumpet.Dixieland jazz = a white imitation of New Orleans jazz, introduced in Chicago; faster, more intense than New Orleans jazz.Sweet jazz = music with the sound and flavor of jazz, but arranged so that playing it requires little improvisation. (by Paul Whiteman, )Rphosedy in Blue = by George Groshen (composer).(No propisation) =(sweet jazz)Harlem = in New York (jam) section (session).==a black neighborhood in uptown new york city that became an important center for jazz.In 30s development of (swing) big bands. Saxaphones, and clarenits, which were very important, (reed, instruments. Wood inst.)Swing = a term with many meanings, including (a) a mood of lilting spontaneity, (b) a danceable music played by the big bands in the thirties and forties. Benny Goodman(1909-1986) = king of swing.Brought big band music to national attention through his many recordings and radio programs.Count Basie(1904-1984) = was a pianist. Who defined jazz as music you can pat your foot to, became one of the most popular of all big band arrangers and leaders. (leader of band in kansas City jazz.Bessie Smith = (1894-1937) most famous of all urban blues singers and surely one whose records earned the most money for their recording company.Jam = to improvise together informally.Ragtime Piano = stride piano= a jazz piano style in which the left hand alternates low bass notes (on one and three) with mid-range chords (on two and four).Cadenza = solo passage. (were orchestra stops, and a solo sings.)Ch.13 Jazz = in 1940s a new generation of young Americans (big band music). Beebop = a complex, highly improvised jazz style, largely developed by Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie.Charle Parker Bird(1920-1955) saxophone virtuoso, style of jazz. But he also introduced new rhythmic, melodic, and improvisational techniques that lifted jazz to a different plane.Walking bass = a steadily moving pattern in the plucked string bass that has melodic as well as rhythmic implications.Dave Brubeck = (b.1910) was in the forefront of progressive jazz on the West Coast, where performances.(pianist and composer) who played with Dixieland and swing bands as a youngster. Unusual rythimic patterns (known for unusaul meters) also known for (take five) his song.Duke Ellington(1899-1974) pianist, composer, arranger, and loved band.3rd stream music = as coined by Gunther Schuller, the term refers to the combination, but not the blending, of jazz and classical music.Miles Davis = (1926-1991) virtuoso trumpet player, Davis was also an outstanding bandleader, composer, and innovator, who continued throughout his life to experiment with creative ideas in jazz.(he was involved cool jazz). Riff = a repeated rhythmic pattern that provides unity in jazz composition . Ella Fitzgerald = to sing scat.Bitonality = two keys at the same time. Ch. 14. Revue = costumed show with no integerated plot.A series of scenes united by a theme but without a plot. (bunch of songs).Operetta or light opera = a form of music theater in which the music and dancing are closely integrated with the plot.(show boat) example.Ziegfeld Follies = Elegant revues produced by Florenz Ziegfeld nearly every year from 1907 to 1932.(written by people from Europe).American operettas = musical shows adapted from the Viennese style, written for the Broadway stage.Book shows =Musicals with an integrated plot.Ch. 15. George M. Cohan(1878-1942) by his teens, Cohan was providing most of the material for the familys acts. Self taught, he made up the skits, composed the songs, wrote the lyrics, and promoted the shows, in which he acted, sang and danced. Show Boat = landmark musical, by Jerome Kern, based upon a literary work and addressing sensitive social issues.Lornz Hart (1895-1943) = one of the most talented lyricists Broadway has known.Rhymes-witty, sophisticated, clever, sometimes devilish, and often risue’- unacceptable for the radio stations of his day.Oscar Hammerstein II = lyricist, wrote the lyrics for his next show, oklahoma. Richard Rodgers(1902-1979) = had two careers, both of them as a songwriter, worked with one lyricist for many years to produce a number to extremely successful musicals. (worked with !st lorenze hart and 2nd oscar Ireinstein.Showboat = was based on a play (novel) by Leonard Berinstein-(1918-1990) pianist and conductor, and composer primarily asssociated with concert music, though he made significant contributions as well to vernacular music and particularly to the Broadway musical stage.Examples, on the Town, Wonderful Town, Candide, and West Side Story.Andrew. D Weber = hes British.
Ch. 16. On film music. Filmscore = all of the music accompanying a film.Mickey Mousing = musically mimicking or accenting an action.Source or Diegetic Music = music hard by characters in the film as well as by the film audience. Functional or nondegetic music = music heard by the audience only.Soundtrack = all of the dialogue, sound effects, and music of a film.Classical Hollywood filmscore = lush orchestral scores particularly associated with films of the 1930s 1940s and 1950s.Quarter tones = those lying halfway between half steps.New age = a soft rock style providing soothing, repetitious blocks of gentle, unassuming sounds produced by synthesizers or acoustic folk instruments.Theremin = the earlist electronic musical instrument.Temp = temporary filmscore, composed of existing music, offered to demonstrate to a films composer the type of music desired for the film.Suite = instrumental composition comprised of several pieces; the suite from a film includes several sections of music from the filmscore.Ch. 17.Opera = a drama that is sung, usually with orchestral accompaniment.Chamber opera = an opera for a small number of performers.Recitative = a declamatory setting of a text, with rhythms and inflections related to those of speech.Aria = a songlike setting, musically expressive, accompanied by the orchestra.Da capo = from the beginning a three-part design. The composer writes the first section and a contrasting middle section of a da capo aria, and the performer repeats the first section with embellishments.Chorus = a large ensemble, with several voices on each part. Libretto = the words of an opera or other dramatic vocal work.Overture = in music theater, an introductory instrumental piece. George gershwin = ansombels. Ch. 18.Drone = a single tone, sounded continuously or repeated.Jimmie Rodgers(1897-1933) = from Mississippi, he was an early country singer. Known as singing breakman.The Carter Family = whereas he typified the hard-living solo wanderer, they represented the close, conservative family.The Carters performed as a group, their harmony close and their voices high-pitched and tense.1920s- the Carters accompanied themselves with guitar, and with autoharp, a simple folk instrument. Performed country music professionally.Cajun Music = light hearted, with dance-related rhythms and catchy melodies, is similar in many ways to the folk musics of rural America, having absorbed some influence from the hillbillies and later country musicians- who in turn, from Lousiana and later in Texas. Ensembles accompanying Cajun dancing or singing often include a small accordion known as a concertina.Concertina = a kind of accordion or portable reed instrument. Melody and chords are achieved by depressing buttons or keys, and the wind is supplied by a folding bellows.Zydeco = a rock-flavored Cajun style of country music. (snap beans, from the title of a song). Rockabilly = combining country themes with the rhythms and instrumentation of rock and roll, as the audience for traditional country music fell away.(Nashville Tennessee. Smooth grass = instrumental music.Bill Monroe = (1911-1996) Blue Grass Boys , playing in the late 40s. Bluegrass instruments = ensemble include a fiddle, guitar, string bass, and five-string banjo.Often there is also a mandolin, popular Italian instrument, on which Bill Monroe was a virtuoso. Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie(1914-1967) folk representative, developed a simple hillbilly singer into a sophisticated composer and performer of protest songs.Ch. 19.Latin American Music = 1st to affect American pop was the Argentinian tango, a graceful and sensuous dance sedate in tempo. Introduced to Broadway in 1911, and made widely popular as danced by Irene and Vernon Castle in a 1913 musical. 1st latin dances to become popular north of the border was the Bomba = a distinctive African-derived Puerto Rican couple dance allowing the man great flexibility and freedom to display his dancing skills while his partner performs relatively fixed steps. Guiro = a notched gourd, open at one end, scraped with a stick or with metal wires, and or cowbell. Claves = cylindrical sticks.(tempo varies, but never very rapid.) Bongos = are pairs of drums of different size, held between the knees and usually played with the fingers and hand, sometimes with a stick.Mariachis = Mexican strolling groups of musicians, including strings and often led by one or more trumpets(jouyes, happy). The Beguine = is a native dance of the West Indies.Salsa = Popular Cuban dance band music with rhythms derived from African American dances.Reggae = a blend of rock and African-Jamaican styles.Samba = Most famous Brazilian song/dance; duple meter. Ch. 20. The phenomem race = white/black rhythm in blues.Mills brothers = (music) was close in style to tin pan alley. Rock and roll = a popular music of the mid-fifties to mid-sixties that combined characteristics of rhythm and blues and country-western music. Alan Freed = disc jockey in Cleveland Ohio, took rhythm and blues and instead of mainstream popular music.Beatles = Liverpool gang, John Lennon formed the group, which included Paul McCartney and George Harrison.John Lennon was an outstanding poet. The group performed together for only about 10 years.The Who group = evolved in the sixties, their rock opera Tommy, written in 1969, was made into a successful film in 1975.Elton John = his birth name (Reginald Kenneth Dwight). Vibrato = a slight variation in pitch that adds warmth and intensity to vocal or instrumental sounds. Early beatles songs were not violent and rebellious.Ch. 22. Charles Ives = (1874-1954) American Rebel, lived in connecit, his father was a band master, when a kid, he watched a lot of parades. Started to write music as a young man in the 1800s became an insurance agent became a millionaire. Henry Cowell(1897-1965), 1st composer to use (tone cluster).The Banshee = (by Henry Cowell) according to Irish(and scotish) folklore, a banshee is a fairywoman who foretells death by materializing nearby the one doomed to die and wailing her long, howling cry. Aleatronic music = (chance) is music in which the composer has left significant decisions to the performer or to chance.(by electronic means).John Cage =(1912-1992) took an unorthodox approach to writing music, known for writing elevator music.The Perilous Night (also by john cage) cage considered all sounds worthy of attention. silence is an absurd concept that simply does not exist.Edgard Var’ese(1885-1965) = pioneer of early electronic music, made music out of any sound, and was the 1st composer to consider music as organized sounds.(Julliard school in NY).Experimental music = music challenging traditional concepts of musical sound.Atonal music = no tonality(no time).Arnold Schoenberg = wrote serial music, and was a jew, (was Australian and came to California) thaught composition at USC.EXPRESSIONIST = 12 tone music school of composition.(more expressed). Elements = rhythm and timbre(tone color). Musique convrete = music that has been created by manipulating taped sounds. Any sounds may be selected for this purpose.(natural music)Milton Babbitt = b(1916) great appreciation for the 12 tone technique, composed only electronic music, and worked only on tape.Gamelan = intro to percussion ensemble.Ch. 23. 1920s-30s was the era first composers made a living as composers. Nadia Boulanger(1887-1979) and Aaron Copland(1900-1990) teacher, used jazz and folk music. Fanfare = brief dramatic piece for brass instruments, with the character of an announcement or celebration.(by Aaron Copland).Appalachian Spring = (aaron copland), folklike hym.Samuel Barber = (1910-1981) greatest composer of the century, exp.(knoxville, Adagio for strings, platoon.William Grant Still(1895-1978) African American Composer, used in the Banjo, and was from mixed ratio background(american indians, and african american).